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Habu Temple


Habu Temple

  • Habu Temple (the Funerary Temple Of Ramses III), it considered to be one of the largest, and most important temple dedicated to the memorial of king in the era of the New Kingdom.
  • It was like the jewel of the Pharaonic civilization on the western bank.

  • Habu Temple was built by The great warrior king Ramses III, to hold in it his funeral rites and to worship the god Amun.

  • The Temple of Habu is unique among the Egyptian temples with its inscriptions, drawings and pictures engraved and painted on its walls and columns.
  • As it records the details of 282 feasts known to ancient Egyptian, and that besides being a temple for funeral rites, it was a temple for feasts.

Names Given To Habu Temple


  • The temple and the archaeological monuments surrounding it were large enough to be called a "city  of Habu" Or " Madinet Habu in Arabic".
  • Another name was given to it such as the Palace of millions of years for the king of Upper and Lower Egypt.

  • Habu temple includes a large area of 320 meters in length from east to west, and 200 meters in width from north to south and it is the only fortified temple.


Who was the great warrior king Ramses III?


  • Ramses III was the most famous ruler in the Twentieth Dynasty.

  • The last ruler in the new kingdom in Egyptian history.  
  • The Greeks knew him as: Ramaxenetus
  • He followed his father Ramses II, in embarking on building huge construction projects.
  • Ramses III was a king and his father was a king, in addition to that he was the father of kings, and despite his assassination, 3 of his children remained kings, namely Ramses IV, Ramses VI, and Ramses VIII


Marina of Habu 

  • Outside the wall of the temple there is marina for ships.

Outer walls of Habu Temple 

  • The temple has the distinction of being the only one among the temples of the western bank, which is surrounded by two walls, one of which is internal and the other external.

  • He built between the 2 walls, which surrounded the temple, houses for the priests and temple officials.


Gaint gate

  • It was established to protect the temple from the threat of invasion, due to the many wars fought by Ramses III.

The scenes on the outer walls


Habu Temple

  • The scene on the outer walls of his high gate represents the usual scenes for which most of the kings of the new kingdom were famous.

Habu Temple

  • There are scenes representing King Ramses III beating enemies in front of the god Ra Hor Akhti, Lord of Heliopolis.

Forms of the enemies which represented in Habu temple 

  • The Palestinians was represented with the helmet, and feathered hoods. 

  • The Libyans was represented with helmet with a long beard. 

  • Sea Peoples was represented with helmet and two horns. 

  • The Nubians was represented with the curly hair.

Habu Temple

  • A unique scene that represents the king outside hunting in his  charioteer and pointing his arrows at a group of lions in the desert.
  • The artist excelled in this scene, where he depicted a lion under the charioteer and it appeared that he has been hunted, and the other arrowed on his back and appear on his face signs of severe pain and fear  From the king.
  • Below the charioteer there are soldiers, as if it were war.

Views on the pylon


Habu Temple

  • Scene on the walls of the Temple of Medinet Habu in Luxor by King Ramses III, showing the count of the number of hands amputated by that great king, for those who dared on the land of Egypt, to warning everyone who thinks to insulting Egypt and its people.

  • In this scene, we find the chief of the soldiers presenting the enemies' severed hands to the king, and behind him stands a person who carefully records the number.
  • The text next to him shows that he was recording, how many prisoners of war, what types of captives, and if they are all belong to the same race or not.

Statue of Sekhmet 


Habu Temple


  • In the passage between the two towers there are two black granite statues of the goddess Sekhmet, represented by the head of a lioness.

Colonnade halls in Habu Temple 


  • The first colonnade hall was destroyed during the earthquake that occurred in the year 27 AD.
  • The second colonnade hall was also demolished over time, leaving only the third colonnade hall, which was distinguished by three entrances.

  • Entrance in the middle to reach the shrine of the Holy of Holies,  which specialized to the god Amun.

  •  The second entrance leads to the shrine of the god Khonsu.

  •  The third entrance leads to the shrine of the goddess Mut.
  • The colors of the walls and roofs of the city are still present despite its establishment in approximately 3200 BC, about 5200 AD.


The ancient Egyptian is the root of everything



Habu Temple

  • Until now, we find that one of the important aspects of the celebrations is the release of the pigeons as a symbol of freedom and peace.  
  • It seems that this ritual is not new, but it has origins in the pharaohs.
  • This scene dates back to the era of King Ramses III, and is depicted on the walls of his temple in Medinet Habu on the western bank of the Nile, and depicts the ritual release of the pigeons during occasions.

Royal palace of king Ramses III


  • The Royal palace of King Ramses III, was beside his temple.

  • In the palace, there were a hall where the king was get out from it to the temple directly.
  •  It was called "the hall of transfiguration", in which the king used to appear to greet his people.

  • In order to supervise the celebrations and rituals that were held in the temple.
  • In the Coptic era, the courtyard of this giant temple was transformed into a church.


Why the hieroglyphic writings on the walls of this temple are so deep, unlike other temples?

  • Because king Ramses III saw that the inscriptions and writings of kings before him had been stolen or erased, so by making the inscriptions so deep in the walls, it could not be stolen.



Photographer "Eadweard Muybridge" and Habu Temple 


Habu Temple

  • Rare scene in Habu Temple of horses running, and while they are running they raise their back and front legs completely off the ground.

  • It is difficult for the human eye to capture this fleeting moment in a horse running motion.

  • But the genius ancient Egyptian artist captured and documented this unique scene in the Temple of Medinet Habu.

  • In the beginning, humans could not confirm this except after attempts to accompany the discovery of  photography.
  • It was only in 1878 that a San Francisco photographer called "Eadweard Muybridge" confirmed that, after five years of attempts, 24 cameras were placed on part of a horse racing ring track, each about 30 cm apart.

  • He made cameras take pictures sequentially, one by one while the horses was running.

Habu Temple

  • The experiment succeeded, and he was able to obtain clear pictures of the horse's feet, and one of these pictures was actually showing the four feet of the horse rising from the ground.
  • Thus, the genius of the ancient Egyptian artist who discovered this truth more than 4 thousand years ago proved.

The first naval fleet in history



Habu Temple

  • King Ramses III, archaeologists called him the greatest military commander because he fought on land and at sea, in Asia, Africa and Libya.
  • Scene of the battle of the Egyptian fleet with the invading Sea Peoples, it considered to be the first naval battle in history, which was during the reign of Ramses III.



Habu Temple

Entrance fee of Habu


  • The entrance fee of Habu Temple 100 pounds for a tourist, and 50 pounds for forigner student.
  • 10 LE for Egyption, 5 LE for Egyption student. 

References 

  • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses_III
  • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hathor
  • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khonsu
  • https://exhibitions.univie.ac.at/person/gnd/1079608923

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