Tomb of Mereruka

 


 Tomb of Mereruka


Tomb of Mereruka

  • Tomb of Mereruka considered to be one of the most important tomb in ancient Egypt, The scenes inside it considered to be as complete archive of the daily life of ancient Egypt.

who is Mereruka?

  • Mereruka was the minister of King Teti (the first king of the Sixth Dynasty), and king pepi I.

  • He was a high-ranking employee, and so close to King Teti.
  • His full name is Mereruka ka Ran Nefer Meri .

Titles of Mereruka

  • He took many titles, the most important of which was the king’s minister.
  • The supervisor of the priests of the pyramid of King Teti.
  • The king’s scribe specializing in the sacred books.
  • The palace governor, and other titles that prove his high position during his official tenure.

The discovery 

  • The tomb was discovered by the French archaeologist Demorgon in 1893. 
  • As for the main burial chamber, it was discovered in 1920.

The Importance of the tomb

  • His tomb considered to be one of the largest tombs from ancient Egypt, that's confirm the high position he reached.

  • The scenes inside the tomb considered to be as complete archive of the daily life of ancient Egypt.
  • The drawings are distinguished by keeping their colors, as if it were just painted yesterday.

The Design 

  • Mereruka tomb contains about 32 rooms, including 21 rooms for Mereruka (chambers A).
  • Six for his wife, her nickname was sasht (chambers B).
  •  Five for his son (chambers C).

  • His main burial chamber is in well 12 meters deep.

  • The tomb is 41 meters long and 23 meters wide.

Tomb of Mereruka


  • The tomb is surrounded by a short wall like around frame.

  • Some inscriptions decorate the walls of this wall highlighting the titles of Mereruka.

The Entrance 

  • On the right side of the entrance of the tomb, it was decorated with the traditional view of Mereruka, standing to welcoming visitors of his tomb, and in front of him his son is a small size actor.

  • On the left side is the same view of Mereruka and his son, but here he bids the farewell to visitors to his tomb.

  • The most important characteristic of the entrance is a view of Mereruka, sitting on a chair in the official form.

Tomb of Mereruka


  • In front of him are three people holding cartouches, each of which contains 4 signs in the form of a lunar crescent, which is the hieroglyphic symbol of the word month.
 

Scene of hippo hunting 


Tomb of Mereruka

  • The famous scene of hippo hunting in the Delta jungle.

  • The religious significance of the scene emerges from its being a symbolic sign for the elimination of evil spirits, and the difficulties encountered by the deceased in the other world, in terms of the symbol of the hippos, as the god "Set" which is eliminated by the idol "Horus", the symbol of goodness.
  • This scene highlights the greatness of the ancient Egyptian artist in highlighting the different types of fish in the Nile River and their subtle details, such as (Tilapia and catfish).

  • Notice in this amazing view a crocodile attacking a hippopotamus in the water.


Tomb of Mereruka


Scene of taming of bulls.

Scene of feeding the hyenas


Tomb of Mereruka


  • Scene of feeding the hyenas, The reason is that they were using hyenas, with the Greyhound in hunting process.
  • Did you know that the ancient Egyptians used to hunt hyenas, raise them, and eat them?!
  • Information about the hyena in order to understand its nature
  • The hyena is a predator, and it is a mammal, and the most important need to distinguish the hyena is the strength of its jaw, which is equal to 3 times the strength of the jaw of a lion
  • Also, the size of a hyena's heart is twice the size of a lion's heart!
Tomb of Mereruka

       How did the ancient Egyptian catch a hyena?
      • Through the ancient Egyptians dealings with this animal, he was able to discover his weak point, and it is strange that the hyena's weakness was originally his strength!
      • The hyena's jaw is its weak point, because the hyena's upper jaw is connected to its spine, so the hyena cannot turn its neck to the right or to the left, when the ancient Egyptian realized that, they were able to catch him easily.
      • As they were holding it from its tail at the end of the spine, this movement was immobilizing it, and thus controlling it, and tying it by the ropes, to be ready for fattening.
      • So why was the ancient Egyptian interested in hunting this animal, and exposing itself to danger, especially since it could kill it, and prey on it immediately?
      • Through many research and studies, it became clear that the ancient Egyptians used to fatten hyenas in order to eat them!
      • We have to know now, why did they eat it? What is the benefit from it at all?!
      • I mean, if they want to eat meat, the Nile Valley is full of pets such as cows and buffaloes, so what is the particular from this animal!
      • The ancient Egyptians, our great ancestors, never did anything for waste.
      • This mystery made scientists think a lot, what was the reason behind eating hyenas?!  Indeed, after doing many studies, they did many biological explanation.
      • They found that the hyena crushes the bones of its prey, and eats the marrow, this makes its meat full of calcium, and rich in countless minerals, and that eating its meat treats liver diseases.
      • This, in addition to the abundance of minerals in his body, makes his dung look like limestone, it becomes coherent, and it was used for writing on surfaces!
      • Our great ancestors risked their lives for the treasure in this animal, which was full of energy and vitality!

      Tomb of Mereruka

      • life-size statue of Mereruka, to receive the offerings made to him on the offering table.

      • The color of the statue was reddish brown, and this was the color that men represented in ancient Egypt, by virtue of their exposure to the strong sun during a work.

      Scene of waking wine

      • Five men press bags containing grapes to extract juice from it, and make wine.

      Tomb of Mereruka


      • In modern times, precisely in 1899, Italian winemakers, who have the brand of "Sella & Mosca", take famous scene from tomb of Mereruka, as a symbol for their brand.
      Tomb of Mereruka


      • Where the founders of that company were so interested hobby travels, and the antiquities of ancient Egypt.

      Tomb of Mereruka


      • A scene representing the gold and jewelry industry, the workers doing this were dwarfs, as their little finger tips, helped them to be precise.

      Tomb of Mereruka


      • A scene representing the punishment of those who refused to pay taxes.
      Notice about Taxes in ancient Egypt

      • Taxes appeared in ancient Egypt after the unification of the north, and the south during the reign of King Menes.
      • It was collected either by goods or by labor.
      • It was imposed on all the people, only temples and priests were exempt from them.
      • We have to know that the tax rates was determined according to the percentage of the Nile flood.

      Mummy of Mereruka

      • Unfortunately, Mereruka's mummy was found in poor condition, and shattered.

      • We were not exaggerating at all when we say that the Egyptian civilization is a civilization of sophisticationbehavior, and meanings. Indeed, wherefore the ancient Egyptian reached a high degree of progress and prosperity.

      References

      • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teti
      • https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pepi-I
      • https://www.ancient.eu/Set_(Egyptian_God)/#:~:text=Set%2C%20also%20known%20as%20Seth,presided%20over%20fertility%20and%20childbirth.
      • https://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcrgh3e.html#:~:text=Horus%2C%20the%20falcon%2Dheaded%20god,a%20familiar%20ancient%20Egyptian%20god.&text=Horus%20is%20the%20son%20of,%22he%20who%20is%20distant%22.
      • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menes


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