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Hibis Temple


Hibis Temple


  • Hibis Temple considered to be one of the most important Egyptian temples, as Hibis temple is the only remaining Egyptian temple from the Sawy Persian era.

  • Hibis Temple is the only temple in the world that represents four historical eras, starting from Pharaonic era, the Persian era, the Sawi era, then the Ptolemaic era and ending with the Roman era.
  • Its construction began since the 26th dynasty in 588 BC.

  • It was built for the worship of the Holy Triad (Amun - Mut - Khonsu).

  • It is the oldest, and largest antique building in the Western desert.

The term Hibis


Hibis Temple

  • The temple was called Hibis because of its presence in an oasis had the same name, which is the oasis of “Hebat”, and Hibis is a Greek term derived from Hebat, which is a hieroglyphic word meaning plow.

  • That name was meaning plow because this oasis was fertile, which allowed the flowering of agriculture in this time.

  • The temple was constructed of sandstone.
  • It was constructed on a relatively high area of ​​what surrounds it from flat land.

  • The purpose of that was to raise the temple above all other buildings, and dwellings of the old city, which surrounded it from all sides.

  • Thus making it easier for the beholder to realize its importance as a sacred place, a center for deity worship.

  • King Ahmose the Second built this great temple.
  • While the Persian King Darius the First, he was known as Darius the great, who ruled Egypt during the period of the Persian occupation of Egypt, he had completed the construction.

  • King Darius who came to succeed King Cambyses who wanted to occupy Egypt, but he and his army drowned in the great sea of ​​sand, and was unable to invade Egypt.  

  • Darius wanted to get close to the Egyptians, so he completed, and restored the temple, as the Persian king was influenced by the belief of the Egyptians.

  • The temple starts from the east with a harbor that was on the edge of the sacred lake, which preceded the temple.
Hibis Temple

  • At the entrance to the temple there is an Acacia Tree, which is a type of gummy tree that is more than 250 years old.

The Roman Gate

  • Next to the harbor, there is the Roman gate that bears an inscription in the old Latin.
Hibis Temple

  • These inscriptions called text of 66, as it is composed of 66 lines, on which the text of the Egyptian constitution.
  • It includes the following (economic legislation, social legislation, legal legislation, administrative matters such as how to appoint the tax collector, women's rights to inheritance, how to distribute water to the people from the wells, military service, the prohibition of bribery).
  • This text goes back to the year 69 AD, during the reign of the ruler of the oases who was called Tiberius Julius Alexander.
  • Then the Roman gate followed by the Ptolemaic gate.

The Ptolemaic Gate

  • It is the largest gate in the temple, but unfortunately, a major earthquake occurred in the 18th century, which destroyed large parts of it.
  • Then the Ptolemaic gate, followed by the Persian gate of King Darius I, which leads to the Rams Road  Leading to the Great Gate, and then the main gate.

Holy of the Holies

  • The most important part of the temple is the Holy of the Holies. 

  • As its walls are crammed with the forms of Egyptian gods, as well as non-Egyptian, as it contains more than 600 deities, with an area of ​​about 8 meters, arranged in longitudinal rows from the floor to the ceiling.

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