Serapeum in Saqqara

 

Serapeum in Saqqara


Serapeum in Saqqara

  • Secrets of Serapeum in Saqqara as holy calves were buried mummified like kings, and the most luxurious jewels were placed with them in the burial.


Serapeum 

Serapeum in Saqqara

  • Serapeum is the name given to every temple or religious structure dedicated to the worship of the god Serapis.

  • There are many Serapeum in Egypt, Italy,  Saqqara, Alexandria, and in Rome. 

  • Serapeum in Saqqara is the most important and complex in its rare engineering.

  • It was discovered by the Egyptologist (August Mariette) in 1848.

The description of the Serapeum in Saqqara:- 

Serapeum in Saqqara


    The tunnel descends to it with a step staircase

  • It consists of a group of tunnels, they are 400 meters long.

Serapeum in Saqqara


  • It was carved in the heart of the rock of the Saqqara plateau and not in the sand, which requires double effort, making believing that it was done by using only a human hand a very difficult thing.

  • However, the tunnel was excavated with unparalleled precision and craftsmanship.

Serapeum in Saqqara


  • It begins with a straight main corridor 136 meters long, with wooden floors, glass which is in the floor now to see the original land of the corridors.
  • On either side of the corridor there are 24 vaulted burial chambers carved into the rock.
  • These rooms do not face each other, but they were dug alternately so, as not to put pressure on the clay soil on which they are dug.

The sarcophagus


Serapeum in Saqqara


  • Each burial chamber contains a huge sarcophagus, made from high hardness rocks such as (red granite - black granite - basalt - quartz).
  • These types of stones came from quarries located in the south of the country, such as (Luxor, Aswan, Sudan, Sinai, the Red Sea, and Fayoum).

  • These types of rocks can only be dealt by diamond cutters.

  • They are 26 very well-done sarcophaguses.
  • The body weight of the coffin is 70 tons, its cover weighs about 30 tons, a while the height of the sarcophaguses ranges between 3 and 4 meters, its width reaches 2.5 meters, and its length is 3 meters.
  • This means that it needs approximately 500 men, to move each sarcophagus.
  • We have to know that, all the internals and external angles of the sarcophagus are 90 degrees, with complete precision.
  • All of the sarcophaguses were found empty and closed, with an exception for one sarcophagus.


The boxes inside are polished, shiny, reflecting the light of lamps, despite the thousands of years since they have been carved.

  • Historical studies indicate that the first calf was buried in Serapeum Saqqara was during the reign of King Amenhotep III.

  • But unfortunately this cemetery was stolen since early ages.

  • Serapeum in Saqqara contained many wall paintings that shows the degree of respect and reverence for the calf by all people in ancient Egypt.

  • It should be noted that King Farouk tried to move one of the coffins from the tunnel, he used many workers and mules, but they could not move it from it’s place with an exception a few meters and it was left in it’s place until now.
  • The Serapeum tunnels have only one door, which is considered to be the entrance and exit, at the same time.

  • In front of the entrance, statues of Greek poets and philosophers Such as (Socrates, Aristotle and Plato), they were found in a semi-circular building.

Serapeum in Saqqara


  • The restoration process lasted ten years, at a cost of 12.5 million pounds.

Entrance Fee Of  Serapeum 


  • 150 LE for forigners, 75 LE for forigners student.
  • 20 LE for Egyptian, 5 LE for Egyptian student.

References

  • https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serapeum_of_Saqqara

  • J.-F. Brunet, The XXIInd and XXVth Dynasties Apis Burial Conundrum, Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum 10 (2005), 26-34.
  • Aidan Dodson, Of Bulls & Princes, the early years of the Serapeum at Sakkara, in: KMT 6/1 (1995) 18-32.
  • Aidan Dodson, The Eighteenth-Century Discovery of the Serapeum, in: KMT 11/3 (2000) 48-53.
  • M. Malinine, G. Posener, J. Vercoutter, Catalogue des Stèles du Sérapéum de Memphis, tome premier (textes), Paris, 1968.
  • Auguste Mariette, Le Sérapéum de Memphis, Parijs 1857.
  • Auguste Mariette, Catalogue général des monuments d'Abydos découverts pendant les fouilles de cette ville. Paris 1880.

G. Maspero, Le Sérapeum de Memphis, par Auguste Mariette-Pacha, publié d’après le manuscrit de l’auteur, tome premier. Paris, 1882.

a. كتاب Auguste Mariette, Le Sérapéum de Memphis, découvert et décrit, Paris, Gide, 1857

b. كتاب Auguste Mariette, Le Sérapéum de Memphis, Paris, F. Vieweg, 1892

c. Jean Vercoutter, Textes biographiques du Sérapéum de Memphis: Contribution à l’étudedes stèles votives du Sérapéum, Paris, Librairie ancienne Honoré Champion, 1962

d. فيديو صناديق سقارة من تعليق الباحث والآثاري يوسف أويان 

e. كتاب Lost Technology in Ancient Egypt لمؤلفه Christopher Dunn



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