Temple of Hatshepsut

 

Temple of Hatshepsut 


Temple of Hatshepsut

  • Temple of Hatshepsut is one of the distinctive and different temples, not only in Egypt, but in the whole world, as it was distinguished by its distinctive and different architectural design, as Hatshepsut was one of the inspiring queens.

Temple of Hatshepsut

  • This is the highest point from the Temple of Hatshepsut, and its high height shows the extent of the ancient Egyptian genius, who challenged logic to come out with this unique architectural masterpiece that remained, to be a witness to the uniqueness of the ancient Egyptian architecture.

Temple of Queen Hatshepsut (Deir- El-Bahri Temple)


Temple of Hatshepsut
  • The mortuary temple of the great Queen Hatshepsut was distinguished by it's luxury, and different design, which will not find in other temples, the construction in the Memorial temple of Queen Hatshepsut (Deir- El-Bahri Temple) began in the eighth or ninth year of  her reign, as she was one of the most famous queens in history, the name Hatshepsut in the ancient Egyptian language means "Amun's favorite concubine over the ladies", She ruled Egypt for 20 years, the history of her rule was the height of prosperity in the Pharaonic civilization.

What did Hatshepsut achieve?

  • Queen Hatshepsut's reign was distinguished, as she won the satisfaction of the common people despite the anger of the priests, she was able to form the most powerful army in the world at that time terrorizing all the invaders without wars, it established strong diplomatic relations with neighboring countries after the country was in a poor state during the reign of Thutmose II, who  It was characterized by severe weakness due to his constant illness, during her reign commercial convoys were activated with most of Africa, and for this it formed the largest fleet in the region.

Hatshepsut family tree

  • She was the fifth of the Eighteenth Dynasty, she is the eldest daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh, King Tuthmosis I, the wife of Thutmose II and the stepmother of Thutmose IIIwhere Tuthmosis II gave birth to Thutmose III,  from one of the  concubines.

What was unusual about Hatshepsut?

  • She was the first to wear gloves, embroidering her with precious stones, due to the presence of a congenital defect with her fingers, and this was revealed after seeing her mummy, unlike most of her statues that were made for her, and her hands appeared natural because she was ordering the sculptors to do that.

Why did she take on the appearance of a male?


Temple of Hatshepsut

  • We have to know that Queen Hatshepsut was used to portraying herself in various statues in the form of a man with a beard, to demonstrate that despite being female, she ruled Egypt like man, as the Egyptians refused to be ruled by a woman.

The mortuary temple (Deir- El-Bahri Temple)

The temple consists of 3 consecutive floors in the form of open terraces built entirely of limestone.

Temple of Hatshepsut


Deir el-Bahri

  • The name Deir al-Bahri is a modern Arabic name given to this region in the seventh century AD, after the Copts used this temple as their monastery.

Temple of Hatshepsut



There are 26 statues of Hatshepsut in the form of Osiris, These statues were originally colored and now only a little colour remains.

The importance of the Incense to the pharaohs

  • On the walls of the temple of Queen Hatshepsut, there are dozens of inscriptions of marine missions sent by Queen Hatshepsut to the country of Punt for trade and to bring incenses from that country, as the incense in Bunt was the best, so pharaohs offered incenses to their gods, to please them,  and many of the pharaohs of Egypt recorded this in paintings on their temples showing them offering  incense to  Various gods.

The commercial trip to Punt

  • Punt location was on the coast of north-western Somalia, this trip considered to be the first technical, and scientific mission to collect plants in human history.


Scenes of The famous commercial trip to "Punt"

  • The scene depicts the Egyptian envoy, his soldiers standing behind him, and in front of him a table with a set of beautiful gifts, including necklaces of beadsbracelets, an axe and a dagger, Standing in front of him is the leader of the Pont "Barho" holding a stick and was followed by his wife "Ati" with her huge body, two of his sons, and his daughter.
Temple of Hatshepsut

  • It is likely that the Egyptian artist portrayed the wife of Bont leader in this way because she was suffering from a disease known as "elephantiasis", which characterized by an enlarged  the breech and feet, It is also possible that the artist has exaggerated a little to present some kind of caricature or comic tradition of her, after that, we see some of the people of Punt, in front of their village and their homes, which are depicted in the form of huts standing on pillars, and ascending to each of them with wooden stairs, the texts inscribed above the people of Punt recall their surprise at the daring Egyptian sailors, they said, "How did you get here?"  To this country that peoples do not know "Did you come from heaven?!
  • The scenes of the upper two rows represent incense trees transported with it’s roots, in baskets filled with mud by Egyptian soldiers.

Temple of Hatshepsut

  • Different views of the fish of the Red Sea, all of which indicate the intelligence of the Egyptian artist, his accurate observations, and his ability to transfer landscapes that illustrate, and record the environment.

Temple of Hatshepsut

Scenes of the mythology of sacred birth

  • Some believe that the scenes of holy birth were among the important reasons for which this temple was built, Hatshepsut wanted to prove that her father was the god Amun, and not King Tuthmosis I, that was after she usurped the throne from King Thutmose III, and there is an important scene of the transportation of two large obelisks (from Aswan to Karnak) across the Nile, where the obelisk are depicted on top of a large ship, pulled by other ships, and under this scene a group of soldiers carrying flags celebrating the consecration of the obelisk.

Manifestations of family hostility in the Temple 

  • The Temple of Hatshepsut gives a clear picture of the family hostility and religious hostility, the Family hostility as she managed to remove Thutmose III from the throne of Egypt due to his young age, that is why we see his revenge anger evident in all those remains of Queen Hatshepsut's monuments, his followers smashed her statues, and scraped off most of her names, we see all this clearly on the walls of her Memorial Temple.

Manifestations of religious hostility in the Temple 

  • As for the religious hostility, we see it in the era of Akhenaten, who launched his religious revolt against the god Amun and his priests, so his followers defaced the images of the god Amun and scrapped his names in this temple.

Queen hatshepsut and senenmut

  • He was the engineer who built her famous temple in Deir el-Bahari, she granted to him 80 titles, and he was responsible for caring for her only daughter, because of his love to the queen he dug a tunnel between her temple and his tomb, both of them queen Hatshepsut and senenmut died in a mysterious ending, that still unknown until now.

Where was Hatshepsut buried? &Where was Hatshepsut found?

  • She was buried in her tomb in the Valley of the Kings tomb no 20, then she was transferred from it to the tomb of her nursing mother, tomb no 60 in the Valley of the Kings.

Did ThutmoseIII killed Hatshepsut?

  • X-rays confirmed the death of Queen Hatshepsut at the age of 55, that she was plump, suffers from diabetes, and that the cause of death was her "bone cancer", which proves that King Thutmose III is innocent of the accusation, by killing his stepmother.

The pharaohs' Golden Parade


Temple of Hatshepsut
  • The mummy of Queen Hatshepsut was transferred in the procession of royal mummies on 3 April 2021, from the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir  square to  National Museum of Egyptian Civilization (NMEC).

Time of visiting the Temple of Hatshepsut

  • The temple is open year-round from 8 A. m to 6 P.m, the best time to visit the temple is in the early morning, in order to enjoy seeing this distinctive temple, without feeling the heat of the sun, which increases in the middle of the day, as the Temple of Hatshepsut records high temperatures during the day and is considered one of the hottest places.

The Entry Fee Of Deir-El-Baheri Temple 

  • The entry fee of  Deir el-Bahari temple is 140 pounds for a tourist, and 70 pounds for foreigners student.

References 

  • https://www.thegreatcoursesdaily.com/was-senenmut-queen-hatshepsuts-secret-lover/
  • https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/people/reference/hatshepsut/#:~:text=Hatshepsut%20declared%20herself%20pharaoh%2C%20ruling,male%20body%20and%20false%20beard.&text=As%20a%20sphinx%2C%20Hatshepsut%20displays,mane%20and%20a%20pharaoh's%20beard.

  • Zbigniew Szafrański (Editor): Królowa Hatszepsut i jej świątynia 3500 lat później. = Queen Hatchepsut and her Temple 3500 years later. Warsaw University Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archeology in Cairo/ Agencja Reklamowo-Wydawnicza A. Grzegorczyk, Warszawa (Warschau) 2001, ISBN 83-88823-75-2.

  • ^ D. Arnold: Lexikon der Ägyptischen Baukunst. S. 

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