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Qalawun Complex

  • Qalawun complex is considered to be the beginning of the emergence of a new architectural style. which is known as architectural complexes that include more than one architectural unit of various purposes, such as a mosque, a school, a dome and a hospital, built in the Mamluk style dating back more than 7 centuries ago.
Qalawun Complex

Qalawun Complex plan

  • It is the one of the most beautiful Islamic complex in all of Egypt, it is located in Al-Muizz Li Din Allah Street, it includes several buildings such as school, a mausoleum for Sultan Qalawun, and Permistan "hospital", in addition to a sabil dating back to Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun.

It is a large building in the shape of the Latin letter L.

Sultan Al-Mansur Qalawun

Qalawun Complex

  • Sultan Al-Mansur Qalawun was the seventh of the Turkish kings who ruled Egypt, and he was the one who founded a family that ruled Egypt, and the Levant for more than a century, during which it witnessed a great architectural and civilized prosperity.

  • King Qalawun knew the value of the social and religious life of the Egyptians, so, he built an integrated charitable complex, and a mausoleum with a distinctive dome in which to read and learn the holy Qur’an, to make the Egyptians close to him, love him in his life, and after his death.

Prince Alameddin Al shujai

  • The construction of this complex was supervised by Prince Alameddin Al-Shujai, who was an expert in architecture and engineering, he mobilized 300 prisoners to the architecture, he also mobilized all the craftsmen and ordered them to work in this architecture, and prevented the workers and craftsmen from working in other buildings, until the work in this complex was completed, so, this great complex was built in less than two years (about 14 month).

Circassian Mamluk Architecture

  • The design of the facade complex is identical to the façade of Palermo Cathedral in Sicily, It is likely that one of the Crusader captives was its designer, it contains an inscription band carved into the stones in thuluth script that includes the nametitles, and date of construction of the builder.

Al-Mansur Qalawun mausoleum

Qalawun Complex
  • Al-Mansur Qalawun mausoleum considered to be the second most beautiful mausoleum in the world, after the Indian Taj Mahal, in the mausoleum, there is a mihrab decorated with marble and fine seashell, it is the largest and most luxurious mihrab in the antiquities of Egypt.

  • The coffin is in the middle of the floor of the mausoleum, surrounded by a wooden shrine, surrounded by four huge granite columns, when the Sultan was dead, this mausoleum was not ready, so he was buried in a place in the citadel for two months, and then his body was transported to this mausoleum.

Qalawun Complex

Qalawun Complex

Madrasa in Egypt

  • There is Madrasa (school) in qalawan set used to teach lessons in jurisprudence, and lessons in medicine, the practical side of which took place in the bimaristan (the hospital of the complex).

Bimaristan in Qalawun set

Qalawun Complex

  • "Bimaristan" is a Persian word means in Arabic "the home of the sick," which meaning a hospital, the idea of ​​building it dates back to when Qalawun was in the Levant, he became seriously ill, he was treated by doctors and medicines brought from Bimaristan or Hospital of Nur al-Din Mahmoud, When Qalawun was healed, it is said that he vowed that if he became king, he would build a hospital like it in Egypt.

Treatment in this hospital was free for all Muslims, without social, age or gender discrimination, at first, treatment was limited to psychiatric patients, as it is one of the first hospitals to treat mental illnesses, and one of the methods used in treatment, to calm the nerves of patients were 

  1. the use of calm water sounds, continuous reading of the Quran, as the bimaristan rooms were overlooking at water fountain, and trees, to provide a feeling of relaxation for the psychopath.
  2. In addition, Sultan Al-Nasir Qalawun allocated (12 person) to work as a musical group to entertain the mentally ill.

Qalawun Complex

  • The psychiatric patient, when discharged from the hospital, takes 5 dinars of gold, So, that he does not have to work directly after getting out from the hospital, that's represented an integrated, civilized health care, while at that time, Europe was going through a dark age, as they dealt with psychopaths with the utmost brutality as they killed them, and burned them.
  • The activity of this hospital continued until the nineteenth century, before it was neglected, Unfortunately it was completely destroyed in 1910, but it was replaced by another new hospital 1915, which was specialized in “Ophthalmology - Eye Diseases, ear, nose and throat, and it continues in work until now.

Mosque of  Sultan Qalawun Complex

  • It is considered the second mosque built in Egypt during the Mamluk era, The mosque is very unique as it combines Coptic and Islamic art.

Gate of the mosque of Qalawun Complex

  • The gate of the mosque is unparalleled in Islamic architecture in Egypt, as It was made from marble.

Largest Minaret in Egypt

Qalawun Complex

  • The Minaret of Qalawun complex considered to be the largest minaret in Egypt, as it consists of three floors, both the first and second floors are square, and the third is round and contains decorations consisting of interlocking arches, This minaret is similar to the minaret AlHambra Mosque in Spain, it was recently discovered that the material used to paste this mosaic is frankincense, as one of the properties of frankincense is that it emits a good smell.


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Asmaa Ahmed

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